NARDI and AUDISIO: Italian Account for Stephanopachys Linearis (Kugelann, 1792), a Species Listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

Italian Account for Stephanopachys Linearis (Kugelann, 1792), a Species Listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)


Three old specimens of Stephanopachys linearis (Kugelann, 1792) from NE Italy, Udine Province (Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region) are recorded. This is the first certain record of this species for Italy since the only previous records, from South Tyrol, were doubtful. This new record is of high conservation value, since this species is protected by the Habitats Directive in the European Union. Distributional and biological data on S. linearis are summarized and it is documented that the previous, doubtful literature records from South Tyrol are erroneous.


Stephanopachys linearis (Kugelann, 1792) is formally protected at EU level, being listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive (cf. Brustel et al. 2013; Trizzino et al. 2013). Its presence in Italy was considered doubtful (cf. Audisio et al. 1995; Trizzino et al. 2013; Genovesi et al. 2014; Nardi et al. 2014, 2015; Audisio et al. 2015), since based only on an old literature record from South Tyrol. In reality, this literature record refers to a congeneric species (see further on), so the aim of this paper is to provide the first true Italian records of S. linearis.

Material and methods

The beetles were identified following the works of Borowski & Węgrzynowicz (2012), McCaffrey (2012) and Brustel et al. (2013). The distribution pattern of the species is expressed also by a chorotype, following Vigna Taglianti et al. (1999). The conservation status of this species in Italy was evaluated according to IUCN (2014). The botanical systematics and nomenclature follow The Plant List (2013). Interpolations are given in square brackets. The following abbreviations are used in the text: ex = specimen/s; tff = translation from French; tfg = translation from German; tfi = translation from Italian.

Acronyms of specimen depositories:


F. Angelini collection, c/o Museo di Storia Naturale, Sezione di Zoologia “La Specola”, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy


P. Luigioni collection, c/o Museo Civico di Zoologia, Rome, Italy


Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa, Italy (R. Poggi, pers. comm., 2016)


  • Stephanopachys linearis (Kugelann, 1792)

  • Apate linearis Kugelann, 1792: 495.

  • Apate elongatus Paykull, 1800: 143.

Material examined. Italy: Friuli [(Udine)], Carnia, Tolmezzo, XI.[19]37, A. Falzoni [leg.], ex coll. Fiori [= former collection Fiori], 2 ex (MCSG); [(Udine), Carnia], Tolmezzo, XI.1937, unknown collector, 1 ex (CFA).

Chorotype and distribution. Sibero-European (boreo-alpine in Europe). This species occurs in: Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, NE China (Heilongjiang), Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France (Corsica, Hautes-Alpes, Pyré- nées-Orientales), Georgia, Germany, NE Italy (mainland), Iran, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, Czech Republic, Russia (Central European Territory, Northern European Territory, West Siberia, East Siberia, Far East), Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine (cf. Sainte-claire Deville 1902; Lesne 1903, 1909; Sainte-Claire Deville 1910; Lundberg 1995; Köhler & Klausnitzer 1998; Nardi 2004; Borowski 2007; Brustel et al. 2013; Müller et al. 2013; Brustel 2014; Brustel & Aberlenc 2014; Ranius et al. 2014; Audisio et al. 2015; Liu et al. 2016). According to Borowski & Węgrzynowicz (2007), this species may be introduced with timber into various regions of the world, but it needs of low temperature for its development, so its acclimatization in warm countries is improbable.

Ecology. Stephanopachys linearis develops on coniferous trees, usually damaged by fire but still living; all host plants belong to the family Pinaceae: Abies alba Mill., Larix europaea DC. (= L. decidua Mill.), L. gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen., Picea abies (L.) H.Karst., and Pinus sylvestris L. (cf. Lesne 1901, as S. elongatus Paykull; Simon 1952, as S. elongatus Payk.; Geis 2002; Johansson et al. 2011; Borowski & Węgrzynowicz 2012; Brustel et al. 2013; Ranius et al. 2014; Liu et al. 2016). The larvae of the Stephanopachys species are specialized feeders on gymnosperms (Liu et al. 2008); nevertheless, those of S. linearis may exceptionally feed also in old Quercus wood (Koch 1992). Asmuss (1836, as Apate elongata Payk.) recorded a specimen of this species in Estonia, together with a specimen of S. substriatus (Paykull, 1800) in an opening on a Sorbus domestica L. tree (Rosaceae); this record is very probably accidental and this tree has since never been recorded as a host of these beetles.

Notes. Tyrol is a historical region of Eastern Alps, now split between Western Austria and Northern Italy (South Tyrol). Stephanopachys linearis was not recorded from Tyrol by Gredler (1866), who recorded only the closely related S. substriatus from a site of South Tyrol (Gredler 1866: 265, as Dinoderus substriatus Payk.). In spite of this, some subsequent authors included Tyrol in the distribution of S. linearis, attributing these records to Gredler as follows:

  • “according to Gredler in Tyrol [tfg]” (Kiesenwetter 1877: 31, as D. elongatus);

  • “and from Tyrol (Gredler sec. [= according to] Kiesenwetter [(1877)]. These indications need to be confirmed [tff]” (Lesne 1897: 335, footnote, as S. elongatus Paykull);

  • “Tyrol (Gredler sec. [= according to] Kiesenwetter [(1877)]” (Lesne 1901: 92, as S. elongatus Paykull);

  • “Hamburg, Styria and Tyrol [tfg]” (Schilsky 1899: XXX-VI. 99);

  • “species that is known to occur in Tyrol and Corsica [tff]” (Lesne 1909: 103, as S. linearis Kug.);

  • “St [= Styria (Brancsik, Grimmer, Kodermann, R. Weber)] Ti [= Tyrol (Gredler, Halbherr, Rosenhauer)] Ha [= Hamburg (Endrulat and Tessin, Koltze, Preller, v. Sydow, Wimmel)] Pr [= Prussia (East- and West Prussia) (Lentz, Vorbringer)] [tfg]” (Schilsky 1909: 115, as S. elongatus Payk.);

  • “Tyrol [tfi]” (Porta 1929: 413, as S. elongatus Payk.);

  • “South Tyrol [(Italy)] (Gredler 1866; Porta 1929) [tfg]” (Horion 1961: 177, as S. linearis Kug.);

  • “from Germany, Italy (South Tyrol) and France (Schilsky 1909) [tfg]” (Paill 2005: 548, as S. linearis (Kugelann, 1792)).

On the other hand, in the historical catalogues of Italian Coleoptera (Bertolini 1878: 247, as D. elongatus Payk.; Bertolini 1904: 77, as S. elongatus Payk.; Luigioni 1929:

640, as S. elongatus Payk.), S. linearis was never recorded from South Tyrol or Tyrol.

Horion (1961), as mentioned above, attributed records of S. linearis from South Tyrol to Gredler (1866) and Porta (1929), but this is an error (see also Di Santo & Biscaccianti 2004: 105) since these two authors (see above) did not mention S. linearis from this region. Also later, this species was never reported from South Tyrol (cf. Peez & Kahlen 1977; Kahlen 1987; Kahlen et al. 1994; Kahlen & Hellrigl 1996). Paill (2005) was also in error in attributing a record of S. linearis from South Tyrol to Schilsky (1909) (see above), who recorded this species only from Tyrol (see above).

The above-listed erroneous records for South Tyrol were the source of the subsequent doubtful citations of S.linearis for Italy (cf. Audisio et al. 1995; Nardi 2004, 2005, 2007; Trizzino et al. 2013; Genovesi et al. 2014; Nardi et al. 2014; Audisio et al. 2015; Nardi et al. 2015). Borowski (2007) also recorded this species for Italy (without further data), but his record was probably based on those of Horion (1961).

In this framework, Stephanopachys linearis was ultimately considered absent in Italy and it was not included in the recent Italian handbook on animal species of Community Interest (Stoch & Genovesi 2016). However, based on the above, recently examined specimens from Friuli (NE Italy), this species must be added to the Italian fauna.

Stephanopachys linearis is unrecorded from Slovenia (Borowski 2007; Vrezec et al. 2011), but its Italian record suggests that, as its close relative S. substriatus, it could occur in the neighbouring Slovenian conifer forests (cf. Jurc et al. 2008; Podlesnik & Jurc 2012).

Moreover, recent records from SE France by Brustel et al. (2013) report the presence of this species in SW Alps, in a mountain area (Hautes Alpes, upper portion of the Guil river valley) just a few kilometers west of the Pellice Valley, NW Italy (Piedmont, Torino Province, Bobbio Pellice municipality).


In the IUCN Red List of European saproxylic beetles (Nieto & Alexander 2010), S. linearis is classified as “Least concern”, whereas in the Italian Red Lists its status was initially indicated as “Vulnerable” (Bologna 2005; Nardi 2005, 2007) and later as “Endangered” (Nardi et al. 2014, 2015). S. linearis is thus far known in Italy only from the above cited locality in Friuli (Tolmezzo), but absence of recent data and of specialized research aimed to collect again the species in this area suggests us to tentatively evaluate it as “Data Deficient (DD)” at Italian regional scale. However, when collected again in the next future in the same locality only, S. linearis could be probably considered at the same regional scale as “Critically Endangered (CR)” following the IUCN criteria B1ab(i,ii,iv) (IUCN 2014).

The area of Tolmezzo includes mountain conifer forests where some of the known host trees of S. linearis occur (cf. Gasparini & Tabacchi 2011; Nimis et al. 2013). Some of these forests are included in the EU Habitats Directive (cf. Poldini et al. 2006; Biondi et al. 2009; Angelini et al. 2016), and the locality of collection is near some protected areas (Musi 2005; Regione Autonoma Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2015; giulia/map.php?prov=UD). All of these factors combined have probably allowed the local survival of the species, but this needs to be confirmed by an adequate field survey using the methods (direct collecting, light traps, intercept traps, ex situ emergence traps) usually adopted in the monitoring of the closely related S. substriatus and other saproxylic Bostrichidae (cf. Mairhuber & Paill 2005; Paill 2005; Brustel et al. 2013; Trizzino et al. 2013; Redolfi De Zan et al. 2014; Macagno et al. 2015; Mifsud & Nardi 2016; Nardi et al. 2016).


Thanks are due to Vincenzo Andriani (Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversità Forestale “Bosco Fontana” di Verona, Verona), Fernando Angelini (Francavilla Fontana, Brindisi), Davide Badano (Taggia, Imperia), Roberto Casalini (Museo Civico di Zoologia, Rome), Fabio Cianferoni (Museo di Storia Naturale dell’Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sezione di Zoologia “La Specola”, Florence), Paolo Cornacchia (Porto Mantovano, Mantua), Franco Mason (Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversità Forestale “Bosco Fontana” di Verona, Verona), Emanuele Piattella (Museo di Zoologia, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome), Roberto Poggi (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa), Gianluca Scaglioni (Porto Mantovano, Mantua), Laura Spada (Corpo Forestale dello Stato, Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversità Forestale “Bosco Fontana” di Verona, Verona), Augusto Vigna Taglianti (Museo di Zoologia, Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome) and Vincenzo Vomero (Museo Civico di Zoologia, Rome) for help in the field or in the lab, and/or for enabling us to study the collections under their care, and to Daniel Whitmore (Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London) for the linguistic revision of the manuscript. Maxim E. Smirnov (Ivanovo, Russian Federation) is thanked for permission to reproduce his magnificent photograph of Stepahnopachys linearis (Fig. 1).



P. Angelini, L. Casella, A. Grignetti, P. Genovesi (eds). 2016. Manuali per il monitoraggio di specie e habitat di interesse comunitario (Direttiva 92/43/CEE) in Italia: habitat. ISPRA, Serie Manuali e linee guida, 142/2016, 280 pp.


H Asmuss. 1836. Notice sur les Apate elongata et substriata, Payk. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 5: 625–627.


P. Audisio, G. Gobbi, G. Liberti, G. Nardi 1995. Coleoptera Polyphaga IX (Bostrichoidea, Cleroidea, Lymexyloidea), pp. 1–29. In: A. Minelli, S. Ruffo, S La Posta. (eds), Checklist delle specie della fauna italiana, 54. Calderini, Bologna.


P. Audisio, M. Alonso Zarazaga, A. Slipinski, A. Nilsson, J. Jelínek, Taglianti A. Vigna, F. Turco, C. Otero, C. Canepari, D. Kral, G. Liberti, G. Sama, G. Nardi, I. Löbl, J. Horak, J. Kolibac, J. Háva, M. Sapiejewski, M. Jäch, M. Bologna, M. Biondi, N. Nikitsky, P. Mazzoldi, P. Zahradnik, P. Wegrzynowicz, R. Constantin, R. Gerstmeier, R. Zhantiev, S. Fattorini, W. Tomaszewska, W. Rücker, X. Vazquez-Albalate, F. Cassola, F. Angelini, C. Johnson, W. Schawaller, R. Regalin, C. Baviera, S. Rocchi, F. Cianferoni, R. Beenen, M. Schmitt, D. Sassi, H. Kippenberg, M. Zampetti, M. Trizzino, S. Chiari, G. Carpaneto, S. Sabatelli, Y. De Jong 2015. Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2 (excl. Series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and superfamily Curculionoidea). Biodiversity Data Journal 3: e4750, DOI: 10.3897/ BDJ.3.e4750


S Bertolini. 1878. Supplemento contenente le specie scoperte o descritte di recente od omesse nel “Catalogo sinonimico e topografico dei Coleotteri d’Italia”. Supplemento del Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana, 10: 237–253 and 254–263.


S Bertolini. 1904. Catalogo dei Coleotteri d’Italia. Ed. Rivista Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Siena (1899–1904), 144 pp.


E. Biondi, C. Blasi, S. Burrascano, S. Casavecchia, R. Copiz, E. Del Vico, D. Galdenzi, D. Gigante, C. Lasen, G. Spampinato, R. Venanzoni, L. Zivkovic 2009. Manuale Italiano di interpretazione degli habitat della Direttiva 92/43/CEE. Italian Interpretation Manual of the 92/43/EEC Directive habitats. Available on line at:


M.A. Bologna 2005 Criteri per la redazione di una prima Lista Rossa di specie di interesse nazionale e regionale, pp. 63–66. In: S. Ruffo, F. Stoch (eds), Checklist e distribuzione della fauna Italiana. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, 2.serie, Sezione Scienze della Vita, 16.


J Borowski. 2007. Family Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802, pp. 320–328. In: I. Löbl, A. Smetana (eds), Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera, Elateroidea, Derodontoidea, Bostrichoidea, Lymexyloidea, Cleroidea, Cucujoidea, Volume 4. Apollo Books, Stenstrup.


J. Borowski, P. Wegrzynowicz 2007. World catalogue of Bostrichidae (Coleoptera). Mantis Publishing, Olsztyn, 248 pp.


J. Borowski, P. Wegrzynowicz 2012. The Powderpost Beetles of the World (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Keys for Identification of Species. Vol. 1. Wydawnictwo Mantis, Olsztyn. 461 pp., 16 plates.


H Brustel. 2014. Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802, pp. 451–453. In: M. Tronquet (ed.), Catalogue des Coléoptères de France. Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie, 23, Supplément.


H. Brustel, P. Aberlenc 2014. Les Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802 de la faune de France: espèces autochtones, interceptées, introduites ou susceptibles de l’être (Coleoptera). Revue de l’Association Roussillonnaise d’Entomologie, XXIII(2): 65–68.


H. Brustel, N. Gouix, H. Bouyon, J. Rogé 2013. Les Stephanopachys de la faune ouest-paléarctique (Coleoptera Bostrichidae): distribution et reconnaissance des trois espèces françaises au service de l’application de la directive Habitats, Faune, Flore. L’Entomologiste, 69(1): 41–50.


D. Di Santo, A.B. Biscaccianti 2014. Coleotteri saproxilici in Direttiva Habitat del Parco Nazionale del Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga (Appennino centrale) (Coleoptera Rhysodidae, Lucanidae, Cetoniidae, Cerambycidae). Bollettino della Società entomologica italiana, 146(3): 99–110.


P. Gasparini, G. Tabacchi (eds). 2011. L’Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei serbatoi forestali di Carbonio INFC – 2005. Secondo inventario forestale nazionale italiano. Metodi e risultati. Edagricole, Milano, 653 pp. + CD-ROM.


K.-U. Geis 2002. Gebietsfremde Splintholz- und Bohrkäfer, nach Mitteleuropa mit Importholz und anderen Gütern eingeschleppt. – Eine Bestandsaufnahme (Coleoptera: Lyctidae, Bostrichidae). Mitteilungen des Internationalen Entomologischen Vereins, Supplement 10: 1–100.


P. Genovesi, P. Angelini, E. Bianchi, E. Dupré, S. Ercole, V. Giacanelli, F. Ronchi, F. Stoch 2014. Specie e habitat di interesse comunitario in Italia: distribuzione, stato di conservazione e trend. ISPRA, Serie Rapporti, 194/2014: ix + 330 pp.


V.M. Gredler 1866. Die Käfer von Tirol nach ihrer horizontalen und vertikalen Verbreitung. 2. Hälfte. Eberle Verlag, Bozen: 235–491.


A Horion. 1961. Faunistik der Mitteleuropaischen Käfer. Band. VIII. Clavicornia. 2. Teil. (Thorictidae bis Cisidae) Teredilia, Coccinellidae. Überlingen – Bodensee, Kommissionsvergal Buchdrückerei Aug. Feyel, xv + 375 pp.


IUCN. 2014. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Version 11. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Available on line at: [accessed January 8, 2015].


T. Johansson, J. Andersson, L. Hjältén, M. Dynesius, F. Ecke 2011. Short-term responses of beetle assemblages to wildfire in a region with more than 100 years of fire suppression. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 4: 142–151, DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2010.00114.x


M. Jurc, N. Ogris, R. Pavlin, D. Borkovic 2008. Forest as a habitat of saproxylic beetles on Natura 2000 sites in Slovenia. Revue d’Écologie (La Terre et La Vie), Supplement 10: 53–66.


M Kahlen. 1987. Nachtrag zur Käferfauna Tirols. Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, 288 pp.


M. Kahlen, K. Hellrigl, W. Schwienbacher 1994. Rote Liste der gefährdeten Käfer (Coleoptera) Südtirols, pp. 178–301. In: J. Gepp (ed.), Rote Liste gefährdeter Tierarten Südtirols. Autonome Provinz Bozen / Südtirol, Abteilung für Landschaftsund Naturschutz.


M. Kahlen, K. Hellrigl 1996. Käfer, pp. 393–511. In: K. Hellrigl (ed.), Die Tierwelt Südtirols. Veröffentlichungen des Naturmuseums Südtirol, Bozen 1.


E.A.H. von Kiesenwetter 1877. Anobiidae und Cioidae, pp. 1–200. In: E.A.H. von Kiesenwetter, G. Seidlitz 1877–1898, Naturgeschichte der Insecten Deutschlands. Erste Abtheilung. Coleoptera. Fünfter Band. Erste Hälfte. Nicolaische Verlags–Buchhandlung R. Stricker, Berlin.


K Koch. 1992. Die Käfer Mitteleuropas. Ökologie. Band 2. Goecke & Evers, Krefeld, 440 pp.


F. Köhler, B. Klausnitzer (eds). 1998. Verzeichnis der Käfer Deutschlands. Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte (Dresden) Beiheft, 4: 1–185.


J.G. Kugelann 1792. Verzeichnis der in einigen Gegenden Preussens bis jetzt entdeckten Käfer-Arten, nebst kurzen Nachrichten von denselben. Neuestes Magazin für die Liebhaber der Entomologie, 1(4): 477–512.


P. Lesne 1897. Revision des Coléoptères de la famille des Bostrychidae. 2e Mémoire. Bostrychides Hypocéphales. Dinoderinae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 66: 319–350.


P. Lesne 1901. Synopsis des Bostrychides paléartiques. L’Abeille, Journal d’Entomologie, 30 (1900–1906): 73–136.


P. Lesne 1903. Observations diverses. Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France, 1903: 182.


P. Lesne 1909. Stephanopachys substriatus Paykull, Bostrychide nouveau pour la faune française [Col.]. Bulletin de la Societé Entomologique de France, 1909: 102–103.


L.-Y. Liu, K. Schönitzer, J.-T. Yang 2008. A review of the literature on the life history of Bostrichidae (Coleoptera). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 98: 91–97.


L.-Y. Liu, H. Ghahari, R.A. Beaver 2016. An annotated synopsis of the powder post beetles of Iran (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea: Bostrichidae). Journal of Insect Biodiversity, 4(14): 1–22.


P Luigioni. 1929. I Coleotteri d’Italia. Catalogo sinonimico-to-pografico-bibliografico. Memorie della Pontificia Accademia delle Scienze, I Nuovi Lincei (2) 13: [4 +] 1–1159 [+ 1].


S Lundberg. 1995. Catalogus coleopterorum Sueciae. Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet & Entomologiska Föreningen, Stockholm, 122 unnumbered pp.


A.L.M. Macagno, S. Hardersen, G. Nardi, Giudice G. Lo, F. Mason 2015. Measuring saproxylic beetle diversity in small and medium diameter dead wood: the “grab-and-go” method. European Journal of Entomology, 112(3): 510–519, DOI: 10.14411/eje.2015.049


Ch. Mairhuber, W. Paill 2005. Der Gekörnte Bergwald-Bohrkäfer (Stephanopachys substriatus) im Nationalpark Gesäuse. Ökoteam – Institut für Faunistik & Tierökologie und Naturraumplanung OG. Im Auftrag der Nationalpark Gesäuse GmbH, Graz, 12 pp.


S. McCaffrey 2012. Powderpost beetle (Stephanopachys linearis) Updated on 7/31/2012 10:21:06 AM Available on line at: PaDIL -


D. Mifsud, G. Nardi 2016. First Maltese record of Stephanopachys quadricollis (Marseul, 1879) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae). ZooKeys, 606: 65–75, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.606.8753


J. Müller, A. Jarzabek-Müller, H. Bussler 2013. Some of the rarest European saproxylic beetles are common in the wilderness of Northern Mongolia. Journal of Insect Conservation, 17(5): 989–1001.


F Musi. 2005. Aree naturali protette nel Friuli Venezia Giulia. Regione Autonoma Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Direzione centrale risorse agricole, naturali, forestali e montagna, Arti Grafiche Friulane S.p.A., Udine, 244 pp. Available on line at: Aree%20Naturali_parteI.pdf


G Nardi. 2004. Fauna Europaea: Bostrichidae. In: P. Audisio (ed.), Fauna Europaea: Coleoptera 2, Beetles. Fauna Europaea version 2.6.2. Available on line at:// [accessed 26 February 2015], last update 29 August 2013.


G Nardi. 2005. Coleoptera Bostrichidae (specie di Direttiva Habitat): CD-ROM. In: S. Ruffo, F. Stoch (eds), Checklist e distribuzione della fauna italiana. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, 2. serie, Sezione Scienze della Vita, 16 + CD-ROM.


G Nardi. 2007. Coleoptera Bostrichidae (Habitats Directive species): CD-ROM. In: S. Ruffo, F Stoch (eds) Checklist and distribution of the Italian fauna. 10,000 terrestrial and inland water species. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona, 2. serie, Sezione Scienze della Vita, 17 (2006) + CD-ROM.


G. Nardi, C. Baviera, P. Audisio 2014. Famiglia Bostrichidae (including Lyctinae), appendice 1 e schede tecniche on line ( In: P. Audisio, C. Baviera, G.M. Carpaneto, A.B. Biscaccianti, A. Battistoni, C. Teofili, C. Rondinini (eds), Lista Rossa IUCN dei Coleotteri saproxilici italiani. Comitato italiano IUCN e Ministero dell’ambiente e della tutela del territorio e del Mare, Roma, 132 pp.


G. Nardi, C. Baviera, P. Audisio 2015. Bostrichidae, p. 69. In: G.M. Carpaneto, C. Baviera, A.B. Biscaccianti, P. Brandmayr, A. Mazzei, F. Mason, A. Battistoni, C. Teofili, C. Rondinini, S. Fattorini, P. Audisio (eds), A Red List of Italian Saproxylic Beetles: taxonomic overview, ecological features and conservation issues (Coleoptera). Fragmenta entomologica, 47(2).


G. Nardi, V. Rovelli, M.A. Bologna, M. Zapparoli 2016. Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull, 1800), pp. 68–69. In: F. Stoch, P. Genovesi (ed.), Manuali per il monitoraggio di specie e habitat di interesse comunitario (Direttiva 92/43/CEE) in Italia: specie animali. ISPRA, Serie Manuali e linee guida, 141/2016.


A. Nieto, K.N.A. Alexander 2010. European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, viii + 45 pp.


P.L. Nimis, A. Moro, S. Martellos 2013. Guida alla Flora delle Alpi Carniche Meridionali (Ampezzo-Sauris). EUT - Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 498 pp.


W Paill. 2005. 52 1926 Stephanopachys linearis (De Geer, 1774), pp. 548–552. In: T. Ellmauer (ed.), Entwicklung von Kriterien, Indikatoren und Schwellenwerten zur Beurteilung des Erhaltungszustandes der Natura 2000-Schutzgüter. Band 2: Arten des Anhangs II der Fauna-Flora-Habitat-Richtlinie. Im Auftrag der neun österreichischen Bundesländer, des Bundesministerium f. Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft und der Umweltbundesamt GmbH.


G. von Paykull 1800. Fauna svecica. Insecta. Tomus III. J.F. Edman, Upsaliae, 459 pp.


A. Peez, M. von Kahlen 1977. Die Käfer von Südtirol. Faunistisches Verzeichnis der aus der Provinz Bozen bisher bekannt gewordenen Koleopteren. Veröffentlichungen des Museum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck, 57(2): 1–525.


J. Podlesnik, M. Jurc 2012. Species dynamics and colonisation patterns of saproxylic beetles in a felled Norway spruce tree(Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the altimontane belt of Slovenia, pp. 33–42. In: M. Jurc (ed.), Saproxylic beetles in Europe: monitoring, biology and conservation. Studia Forestalia Slovenica, 137.


L. Poldini, G. Oriolo, M. Vidali, M. Tomasella, F. Stoch, G. Orel 2006. Manuale degli habitat del Friuli Venezia Giulia. Strumento a supporto della valutazione d’impatto ambientale (VIA), ambientale strategica (VAS) e d’incidenza ecologica (VIEc). Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia – Direzione Centrale ambiente e lavori pubblici – Servizio valutazione impatto ambientale, Università degli Studi di Trieste – Dipartimento di Biologia. Available on line at:


A Porta. 1929. Fauna Coleopterorum Italica. III. Diversicornia. Stabilimento Tipografico Piacentino, Piacenza, 466 pp.


T. Ranius, P. Bohman, O. Hedgren, L.O. Wikars, A. Caruso 2014. Metapopulation dynamics of a beetle species confined to burned forest sites in a managed forest region. Ecography, 37(8): 797–804, DOI: 10.1111/ecog.00475


De Zan L. Redolfi, F. Bellotti, D. D’Amato, G.M. Carpaneto 2014. Saproxylic beetles in three relict beech forests of central Italy: Analysis of environmental parameters and implications for forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 328: 229–244.


Regione Autonoma Friuli-Venezia Giulia. 2015. Aree naturali protette nel Friuli Venezia Giulia. Regione Autonoma Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Direzione centrale infrastrutture, mobilita, pianificazione territoriale, lavori pubblici, edilizia. Servizio tutela del paesaggio e biodiversità. Sincromia srl, Roveredo in Piano (PN), 25 pp. [non numerate] Available on line at: RAFVG/ambiente-territorio/tutela-ambiente-gestione-risorse-naturali/FOGLIA41/allegati/AREE_naturali_protette_ FVG_ITA.pdf


J Sainte-Claire Deville. 1902. Sur l’existence en Corse d’espèces actuellement confinées dans la zone arctique [Col.]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 5: 332.


J Sainte-Claire Deville. 1910. pp. 273–336. In: Catalogue critique des Coléoptères de la Corse. G. Poisson et C1e, Caen. [Published separately as a supplement of Revue d’Entomologie, 27].


J Schilsky. 1899. Die Käfer Europa’s. Nach der Natur beschrieben. Heft. 36. Von Bauer und Raspe (Emil Küster), Nürnberg, iv + 100 nr. [each on 1 to 3 sheets] + [54] pp.


J Schilsky. 1909. Systematisches Verzeichnis der Käfer Deutschlands und Deutsch-Oesterreichs. Mit besonderer Angabe der geographischen Verbreitung aller Käferarten in diesem Faunengebiete. Zugleich ein Käferverzeichnis der Mark Brandenburg. Verlag von Strecker & Schröder, xix + 212 pp.


A Simon. 1952. Trois coléoptères rares dans la vallée du Queyras (05). L’Entomologiste, 8(2): 63–64.


F. Stoch, P. Genovesi (eds). 2016. Manuali per il monitoraggio di specie e habitat di interesse comunitario (Direttiva 92/43/ CEE) in Italia: specie animali. ISPRA, Serie Manuali e Linee guida, 141/2016, 364 pp.


The Plant List. 2013. Version 1.1. Published on the Internet. Available on line at: (accessed 1st January 2016).


M. Trizzino, P. Audisio, F. Bisi, A. Bottacci, A. Campanaro, G.M. Carpaneto, S. Hardersen, F. Mason, G. Nardi, D.G. Preatoni, Taglianti A. Vigna, A. Zilli, P. Cerretti (eds). 2013. Gli artropodi italiani in Direttiva Habitat: biologia, ecologia, riconoscimento e monitoraggio. Quaderni Conservazione Habitat, 7. CFS-CNBFVR, Centro Nazionale Biodiversità Forestale. Cierre Grafica, Sommacampagna, Verona, 256 pp.


Taglianti A. Vigna, P.A. Audisio, M. Biondi, M.A. Bologna, G.M. Carpaneto, A. De Biase, S. Fattorini, E. Piattella, R. Sindaco, A. Venchi, M. Zapparoli 1999. A proposal for a chorotype classification of the Near East fauna, in the framework of the Western Paleartic region. Biogeographia, Lavori della Società italiana di Biogeografia (n.s.), 20: 31–59.


A. Vrezec, A. Pirnat, A. Kapla, S. Polak, M. Vernik, S. Brelih, B. Drovenik 2011. Status and knowledge about beetles (Coleoptera) of European conservation importance in Slovenia with proposal of Slovenian nomenclature [in Slovenian]. Acta Entomologica Slovenica, 19(2): 81–138.

Fig. 1

Stephanopachys linearis (body length: 5.2 mm) from Central Russia, Ivanovo area, city environs, bank of river Volga – Uvod channel, on Picea (photo by Maxim E. Smirnov).

Abstract views:


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Copyright (c) 2016 Gianluca Nardi, Paolo Audisio

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
© PAGEPress 2008-2018     -     PAGEPress is a registered trademark property of PAGEPress srl, Italy.     -     VAT: IT02125780185