LYKIDIS, NARDI, and PETRAKIS: First Record of Sinoxylon Anale and S. Unidentatum in Greece, with an Updated Account on their Global Distribution and Host Plants (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

First Record of Sinoxylon Anale and S. Unidentatum in Greece, with an Updated Account on their Global Distribution and Host Plants (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)

Abstract

Sinoxylon anale Lesne, 1897 and S. unidentatum (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae), two almost cosmopolitan species most likely native of the Oriental Region, are recorded for the first time from Greece on the basis of several specimens intercepted in a consignment at the Piraeus harbor (Attica, Athens) in wood packaging material originating from China. The establishment of these species in Greece is briefly discussed, moreover, an updated list of their interceptions, countries of establishment and host plants, is provided.





Introduction

Sinoxylon anale Lesne, 1897 (= Apatodes macleayi Blackburn, 1899; = S. geminatum Schilsky, 1899) and S. unidentatum (Fabricius, 1801) (= S. conigerum Gertstäcker, 1855) are two closely related species (Lesne 1906; Huang et al. 2001). Both are likely native of the Oriental Region, but were passively introduced in many countries. Currently they are widespread in the inter-tropical regions of the world and are almost cosmopolitan in distribution (cf. Bahillo de la Puebla et al. 2007; Borowski 2007; CABI/EPPO 2009; Price et al. 2011; Juárez 2014; Geis 2015; Nardi & Mifsud 2015; EPPO 2016a, 2016b; Plantwise 2016). Both species are easily transported since their xylophagous larvae live in timber and wood packaging material of a range of goods (cf. Stanaway et al. 2001; Geis 2002; Karnkowski 2002; Teixeira et al. 2002; Karnkowski 2006; Peres Filho et al. 2006; Bahillo de la Puebla et al. 2007; Zhong et al. 2007; Benker 2008; Savoldelli & Regalin 2009; Meleiro et al. 2014), and this is why both species have become established in other continents (cf. Binda & Joly 1991; Ivie, 2002; Teixeira et al. 2002; Bahillo de la Puebla et al. 2007; Causton et al. 2011; Price et al. 2011; Zhang et al. 2011; Plantwise 2016). In the Euro-Mediterranean area, Sinoxylon anale was recorded from Austria, Belgium, Finland (Borowski 2007), France (Brustel & Aberlenc 2014), Germany, Great Britain (Borowski 2007), Iran (Liu et al. 2016), Israel (Argaman 1987), The Netherlands (Schulten & Roorda 1984), Poland (Dominik 1970; Borowski 2007), NW Russia (Geis 2002), and Ukraine (Gumovsky 2010), while S. unidentatum was recorded from France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Malta, Poland, Russia, Spain and Ukraine (cf. Nardi & Mifsud 2015). According to some authors (cf. CABI/EPPO 2009; EPPO 2016b), S. unidentatum is established outdoors in some European countries, but this status for this species and also for S. anale (Singh & Srivastava 1998), was never confirmed (cf. Gumovsky 2010; Nardi & Mifsud 2015). This latter species was reported also from Oman (Geis 2015), Saudi Arabia (Amin et al. 1986), South Korea (Choo et al. 1983) and Venezuela (Joly et al. 1994), while S. unidentatum was recorded also from Perù (Juárez 2014), but these countries were later overlooked (cf. Argaman 1987; Borowski 2007; Park et al. 2015; EPPO 2016a, 2016b; Plantwise 2016).

Recent captures of Sinoxylon anale and of S. unidentatum in Greece, are discussed herein. These alien species are being recorded for the first time from this country.

Material and methods

These two species were intercepted (26 Nov 2015) by Mr P. Kanellopoulos at the Piraeus harbor (Attica, Athens) in wood packaging material (palettes and spacers of heavy marble sheets) in a container. The consignment originated from China which included a great variety of other goods. Woods with fine dust and wood debris were observed and samples were collected in three different points of the consignment. Some wood planks were heavily eaten with numerous exit holes all over the surface (Fig. 1). These samples were sent to the Laboratory of Forest Entomology at Athens, where they were put separately in three different rearing boxes in order to collect the emerging insects. Large number of beetles emerged, but, by mistake, few specimens were later conserved.

The identification of the woods was based on their anatomical features according to InsideWood library (InsideWood 2004; Wheeler 2011); for this reason, specimens of all wood samples were cut (approximate dimensions of 2x2x2 cm) and then immersed in boiling water for 12 hours. Consequently these specimens were mounted on a sliding microtome (Jung, Heidelberg, Germany) equipped with a wedge-shaped blade and were used for the production of sections with a thickness of about 10μm. For all samples, cross, tangential and radial planes were sectioned, while the knife blade and the cutting surface formed an angle of approximately 15°. The sections were stained with safranin solution for 5 minutes, rinsed with distilled water, absolute ethanol and xylol and were finally mounted on glass microscope slides using Entellan. The observation was carried out with a Nikon Labophot 2 light transmission microscope equipped with a 5MP digital camera. Quantitative features were measured using ImageJ freeware software (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/) and based on at least 25 counts.

The beetles were identified using the work of Lesne (1906) and more recent illustrated keys (Mathew 1982; Binda & Joly 1991; Joly et al. 1994; Maes 1995; Walker 2005a, 2005b; Liu et al. 2006; Bahillo de la Puebla et al. 2007; Barriga & Cepeda 2009; Sittichaya & Beaver 2009a; Sittichaya et al. 2009). Their morphology was also examined (Figs 2–3) with a Phenom SEM (Priniotakis, Athens). Species nomenclature follows Borowski & Węgrzynowicz (2007).

The known host plants for these two beetles were summarized in Table 1 (alive plants, death wood or wood in packaging material). The systematic and botanic nomenclature (Table 1) follow The Plant List (2013); families and, within each family, species are listed alphabetically. Records for “Bamboo/s” (without further data), were listed (Table 1) as “Bambusoideae spp.” (Poaceae). Moreover, Sinoxylon anale was recorded (cf. Archibald & Chalmers 1983) from Coffea sp. (without further details) but very probably this interception was made in a consignment, since no commercial use of any Coffea wood is known (Lykidis, unpublished data).

Some literature records of Sinoxylon sp. (Cotes 1889, 1893, 1894; Ratti & Rampini 1977), are attributed to S. anale (cf. Lesne 1906; Ratti 2004). The papers listed for S. unidentatum in the following pages (Table 1 included), refer, with few exceptions (Borowski 2007; Borowski & Węgrzynowicz 2007; Savoldelli & Regalin 2009; Sittichaya & Beaver 2009a, 2009b; Beaver et al. 2011; Kangkamanee et al. 2011; Sittichaya et al. 2009, 2013; Juárez 2014; EPPO 2016b), to S. conigerum.

The acronyms used in the text are: CGN = private collection G. Nardi, Cisterna di Latina (Latina), Italy; CNB-FVR = Centro Nazionale per lo Studio e la Conservazione della Biodiversità Forestale “Bosco Fontana” di Verona, Sede di Bosco Fontana, Marmirolo (Mantua), Italy; es. = specimen/s; IMFE = collection of the Institute for Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems, Laboratory of Forest Entomology, Athens, Greece.

Results

Material examined. Sinoxylon anale. Greece: Attica, Piraeus harbor, 26 Nov 2015, Samples 1 and 2, P. Kanellopoulos leg., 11 es. (CGN, CNBFVR, IMFE). Sinoxylon unidentatum. Greece: Attica, Piraeus harbor, 26 Nov 2015, Sample 3, P. Kanellopoulos leg., 1 es. (IMFE).

The identifications of the wood samples are as follows:

Sample 1. Wood diffuse-porous, with indistinct or absent growth ring boundaries. Mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina was 100–200 μm and larger than 200 μm. Axial parenchyma bands more than three cells wide were also reported. Rays were 10-seriate with 4–12 rays per millimeter and ray height of less than 1 mm. This sample belongs to Ficus sp. (Moraceae).

Sample 2. Wood diffuse-porous with indistinct growth ring boundaries. Alternate intervessel pits of 2–4 μm were recognized having in some cases polygonal shape. Concerning vessels, the mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina was 50–200 μm and there were 4–20 vessels per square millimeter. Mean vessel element length was 350–800 μm. Scanty paratracheal axial parenchyma was identified. In terms of rays, their height was less than 1mm, width from 1 to 4 cells and 4–12 rays per millimeter were measured. According to these anatomical characteristics, this sample belongs to Chionanthus sp. (Oleaceae). Further genera of this family are recorded as hosts of other Sinoxylon species (Frediani 1961; Chararas & Balachowsky 1962; Pollini 1998).

Sample 3. Wood diffuse-porous with indistinct or absent growth ring boundaries. Intervessel pits were alternate with polygonal shape and dimension of less than 4 μm up to 5 μm. Vasicentric axial parenchyma was detected. Mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina was 170–420 μm. In terms of rays, their height was 200–650 μm, width from 1 to 3 cells and 7–9 rays per millimeter were measured. According to these anatomical characteristics, this sample belongs to Leguminosae Mimosoideae but species identification was not possible. Genera (e.g. Leucaena, Piptadenia, Pithecellobium, etc.) of this subfamily are recorded as hosts of S. anale and/or S.unidentatum also by other authors (Tab. 1).

The SEM examination of an adult of S. unidentatum showed that on the elytral declivity spines there are some hairs that likely are sensory connected to a proprioreceptor (Figs 2–3).

Discussion

The species of the family Bostrichidae use at least 70 plant families as hosts (cf. Beeson & Bhatia 1937; Frediani 1961; Chararas & Balachowsky 1962; Pollini 1998; Liu et al. 2008; Tonkel et al. 2014); all families detected in the above mentioned consignment belong to this set of hosts, moreover importations of S. anale and S. unidentatum with stone tiles were observed also in Canada (Allen et al. 1997).

Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests, so standard treatments for WPM are used in international trade to “practically eliminate” the risk of international transport of most bark and wood pests via WPM (Haack & Cavey 2000; Haack & Petrice 2009; Haack et al. 2014). Table 1 summarizes the known hosts of S. anale and S. unidentatum; it is very likely that WPM made from wood of these plants is more easly colonized by these beetles if the wood is not treated with insecticides. So, in the consignments the WPM, other wooden articles – spacers for stone sheets, furnitures, picture frames, etnic handicrafts, fuel wood, etc. (cf. Weidner 1967; Sandhu 1975; Cymorek 1982; Poggi et al. 1994; Schillhammer 1995; Sellenschlo 1997; Haack & Cavey 2000; Stanaway et al. 2001; Geis 2002; Haack 2006; Iwata & Nakano 2006; Jabloński et al. 2006; Westcott et al. 2006; Quiroz-Gamboa & Sepúlveda-Cano 2008) – and, of couse, logs and timber must be treated with insecticides to prevent the entry of exotic insect pests (cf. Gnanaharan & Mathew 1982; Elouard 1998; Stanaway et al. 2001; Benker 2008; Zhang et al. 2011); moreover in order to increase the probability of detecting alien wood-boring beetles soon after their arrival, monitoring programmes should be concentrated in harbors with large volumes of imports, in surrounding forests and in wood waste landfills (cf. Wylie et al. 2008; Rassati et al. 2015a, 2015b).

Table 1 shows that the larvae of both species are polyphagous, they occur in dying or dead wood, including seasoned dry wood. The larvae are eventually capable in detoxifying many chemicals of their host plants (cf. Breny 1957; Tomimura 2003), infact some of these plants are used by man for extraction of chemicals used in medicine, cosmetics, perfumery, or for the preparation of biopesticides (cf. Roark 1932; Karir 2004; Máthé 2015). The adults sometimes bore into green shoots and twigs for maturation feeding or hibernation, moreover they can girdle small stems (about 1 cm in diameter), causing them to break at the point of attack (cf. Stebbing 1914; Beeson & Bhatia 1937; Beeson 1941; Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul 1989; Pinyopusarerk et al. 1996; Ho & Hashim 1997; Jha & Sen Sarma 2008; Sittichaya & Beaver 2009a; Sittichaya et al. 2013).

On the basis of existing evidence (cf. Frediani 1958, 1961; Soro 1964; Sohi & Bindra 1969; Khalilov 1972; Viggiani 1974; Bournier 1976; Halperin & Damoiseau 1980; Filip 1986; Moleas 1988; Ciampolini et al. 1989; Ragazzini 1996; Pollini 1998; Fernández-Cano & Togores 2011; Mani et al. 2014), the Australian authority for agriculture (DAFF 2013) proposed restrictions to the importation into Australia of propagative material of Vitis vinifera from other countries, since Sinoxylon spp. and other alien insects as well can develop in the WPM of this propagative material or can occur on the branches of this material.

Considering the polyphagy of S. anale and S. unidentatum (Table 1), the high diversity of woody plants of Greece, the warm climate of this country, the climate change impacts on expansion of species’ distributional ranges, and the increasing global transport networks (cf. Vitousek et al. 1996; Thuiller 2004; Dukes et al. 2009; Founda & Giannakopoulos 2009; Holmes et al. 2009; Hulme 2009; Walther et al. 2009; Leal et al. 2010; Robinet & Roques 2010; Roques 2010; Bjorkman & Niemela 2015; Lindström & Lehmann 2015; Martin 2015; Paine & Lieutier 2016), the establishment of S. anale and/or S. unidentatum in Greece, at least in indoor warehouses (cf. Benker 2008; Savoldelli & Regalin 2009), cannot be excluded. These new records further underline that to reduce the risk of importing exotic wood-boring beetles in the Euro-Mediterranean area, a greater emphasis must be placed on inspecting and treating WPM originating from tropical countries (cf. Rassati et al. 2014; Nardi & Mifsud 2015; Nardi et al. 2015; Rassati et al. 2015a; Paine & Lieutier 2016).

Acknowledgements

This study has been supported by European Union Program and the Hellenic Ministry of Agriculture “Surveys 2015 for quarantine organisms”. Thanks are extended to Mr Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (Phytosanitary Inspector at the “Center for Plant Protection” of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece) who provided us the beetles object of this paper; Dr Davide Badano (Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IBAF-CNR), Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy) for his constructive comments on a first version of this paper; Dr David Mifsud (University of Malta, Msida, Malta) for the linguistic revision of the manuscript. Thanks are extending to Prof. Vassilios Roussis and Dr Stefanos Kikionis (Department of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece) who provided photo facilities and the Phantom SEM. Special thanks to Mrs Emily Lahlou and Mr Dionyssis Georgiou both in the Institute for Mediteranean Forest Ecosystems (Athens).

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67 

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68 

R. Gnanaharan, V.V. Sudheendrakumar, K.S.S. Nair 1985. Protection of cashew wood Anacardium occidnetale in storage against insect borers. Material und Organismen, 20(1): 65–74.

69 

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71 

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75 

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77 

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Fig. 1

A spacer plank (sample 1) heavily infested by Sinoxylon anale. An adult beetle is visible in the white circle area (Photograph by Panos V. Petrakis).

fe-2016-2-171-g001.jpg
Figs 2-3

SEM pictures of the elytral declivity spines of Sinoxylon unidentatum collected in a gallery: 2. Spines at both elytral sides (wood debris was not removed) (magnification 325X); 3. A spine at higher magnification (2700X). Scale bars: Fig. 2 = 100 μm; Fig. 3 = 10 μm (Photograph by V. Roussis).

fe-2016-2-171-g002.jpgfe-2016-2-171-g003.jpg
Table 1

Host plants of Sinoxylon anale and S. unidentatum. Abbreviations: hp = host plant (without further details); hwpm = hard wood packaging material; lct = logs and cut branches; ldst = debarked logs and sawn timber; psw = primarily sapwood of logs; Sa = S.anale; Su = S. unidentatum; sw = sapwood; ti = stored timber; t&f = stored timbers and finished products; unr = unresolved name (cf. The Plant List 2013); ! = this paper.

Anogeissus acuminata (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guillem. & Perr.

N Species Family Plant part attacked Sa Su Source
1 Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae wood + + Beeson & Bhatia 1937
cashew timber + Gnanaharan et al. 1982
stored logs and planks + Mathew 1982
nuts + cf. Archibald & Chalmers 1983
wood stored + Gnanaharan et al. 1985
t&f + Mathew 1987
cashew wood + Stanaway et al. 2001
ti + Nair 2007
hp + Brasil 2008
2 Astronium fraxinifolium Schott timber + Peres Filho et al. 2006
3 Buchanania cochinchinensis (Lour.) psw + Beeson 1941
M.R. Almeida (= latifolia Roxb.)
4 Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
B.L. Burtt & A.W. Hill
5 Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) psw + Beeson 1941
Merr. (= grandis Engl.)
6 Mangifera sp. lct + Kalshoven 1963
hp + Maes 1995
7 Mangifera indica L. psw + Beeson 1941
hp Beeson 1941; Vrydagh 1957;
+ Brasil 2008; Veenakumari & Prashanth 2009; Plantwise 2016
branches + Vrydagh 1957; Binda & Joly
1991
stem Binda & Joly 1991
ldst used in construction + Mathew 1982
works
ldst used for making brush + Mathew 1982
handles, matches
ldst used for packing cases + Mathew 1982
wood + Poggi et al. 1994
dead and dry trunk + Masood et al. 2012
8 Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (Sond.) wood + Poggi et al. 1994
Kokwaro
9 Polyalthia fragrans (Dalz.) Bedd. Annonaceae psw + Mathew 1982
10 Areca catechu L. Arecaceae hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
11 Agave sisalana Perrine Asparagaceae hp + cf. Archibald & Chalmers 1983
12 Cordia myxa L. Boraginaceae psw + Beeson 1941
13 Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Bromeliaceae hp + cf. Archibald & Chalmers 1983
14 Canarium album (Lour.) DC. Burseraceae timber + Le-Van-Nong 1975
(= album Raeusch.)
15 Canarium pimela K.D. Koenig (= nigrum (Lour.) Engl.) timber + Le-Van-Nong 1975
16 Carica papaya L. Caricaceae trunk + Binda & Joly 1991
17 Casuarina equisetifolia L. Casuarinaceae psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
small stems + Pinyopusarerk et al. 1996
(about 1 cm in diameter)
18 Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
19 Calophyllum sp. Clusiaceae lct + Kalshoven 1963
20 Garcinia loureiroi (Pierre) timber + Le-Van-Nong 1975
21 Garcinia tonkinensis (Vesque) timber + Le-Van-Nong 1975
22 Anogeissus acuminata (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guillem. & Perr. Combretaceae psw + Beeson 1941; Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
23 Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb. ex DC.) Wall. ex Guillem. & Perr. posts + Stebbing 1914
psw + Beeson 1941
24 Combretum ovalifolium Roxb. psw + Beeson 1941
25 Getonia floribunda Roxb. (= Calycopteris floribunda (Roxb.) Lam. ex Poir.) psw + Beeson 1941
26 Terminalia spp. hp + + Moutia 1944 [su]; Geis 2002 [su]; FAO 2007 [sa]
27 Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. psw + Beeson 1941
28 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (= belerica [sic!] = bellerica [sic!]) wood + Cotes 1893, 1894, cf. Lesne 1906
psw + Beeson 1941; Mathew 1982
wood + Stebbing 1914; Plantwise 2016
29 Terminalia bialata (Roxb.) Steud. wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937; Poggi et al. 1994
psw; ornamental timber + Beeson 1941
hp + Vrydagh 1957
30 Terminalia chebula Retz. hp + Stebbing 1914; Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
31 Terminalia microcarpa Decne [unr] hp + Plantwise 2016
32 Terminalia myriocarpa Van Heurck & Mull. Arg. wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937; Poggi et al. 1994
ornamental timbers + Beeson 1941
hp + Vrydagh 1957
33 Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn. wood + Stebbing 1914
Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn. psw + Beeson 1941
Terminalia tomentosa Wight & Arn. sw only + Mathew 1982
34 Dipterocarpus gracilis Blume (= pilosus Roxb.) Dipterocarpaceae wood + Sen-Sarma & Thakur 1994
35 Dipterocarpus indicus Bedd. wood + Sen-Sarma & Thakur 1994
36 Dipterocarpus retusus Blume (= macrocarpus Vesque) wood + Sen-Sarma & Thakur 1994
37 Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. wood + Beeson 1941
38 Shorea spp. hp + FAO 2007
hwpm + Savoldelli & Regalin 2009
39 Shorea bracteolata Dyer [unr] log/timber + Choi et al. 2003
40 Shorea lepidota Blume [unr] log/timber + Choi et al. 2003
41 Shorea robusta Gaertn. dead wood + Stebbing 1899; Lesne 1906
beams + Stebbing 1914
timber + Stebbing 1914
hp + Stebbing 1914; Beeson 1941; Vrydagh 1957; Plantwise 2016
logs + Stebbing 1914
wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937; Poggi et al. 1994
psw + Beeson 1941
debarked pillets + Mathur et al. 1971
42 Shorea stellata (Kurz) Dyer (= Parashorea stellata Kurz) psw + Beeson 1941
43 Vateria indica L. (= malabarica Blume) wood + Sen-Sarma & Thakur 1994
debarked timber + + Mathew 1982
44 Diospyros sp. Ebenaceae logs + Fisher 1950
45 Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Müll.Arg. Euphorbiaceae hp + + Kamnerdratana et al. 1970 [sa]; Hussein 1981 [sa]; Jose et al. 1989 [su]; Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995 [sa]; FAO 2007 [sa]; Brasil 2008 [su]; CABI/EPPO 2009 [su]; EPPO 2016b [su]; Plantwise 2016 [su]
ti + + Tisseverasinghe 1970 [su]; Nair 2007 [sa, su]
freshly-sawn planks + + Gnanaharan & Mathew 1982
sawn timber used for packing cases + + Mathew 1982
sawn timber and logs + + Gnanaharan et al. 1983
t&f + + Mathew 1987
dead wood + cf. Jayarathnam 1992
wood + + Tomimura 1993 [su]; Stanaway et al. 2001 [sa]; Tarasin & Rattanapun 2013 [sa]
unseasoned and + + Ho & Hashim 1997
seasoned wood
hwpm + Geis 2002
air-dried and seasoned sawn timber + + Sittichaya & Beaver 2009a,
debarked logs + + Beaver et al. 2011
sawn timber + + Kangkamanee et al. 2011
wood from trunks + Sittichaya et al. 2012
and branches
46 Hura crepitans L. cut branches; wood + Binda & Joly 1991
hp + Maes 1995; Plantwise 2016
47 Mallotus spp. hp + FAO 2007
48 Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg. psw + Beeson 1941
(= philippinensis [sic!])
49 Mallotus roxburghianus Mueil. wood + cf. Lesne 1906; Gumovsky 2010
psw + Beeson 1941
50 Manihot esculenta Crantz roots or dry roots + + Fleutiaux 1902 [su]; Lesne
(= utilissima Pohl) 1906 [su]; Vrydagh 1954 [sa],
1955 [su]; cf. Horion 1961 [sa];
Kalshoven 1963 [sa]; Aitken
1975 [su]; Pollini 1998 [su]
hp + Frappa 1938; Maes 1995; Brasil
2008; CABI/EPPO 2009; EPPO
2016b; Plantwise 2016
rhizomes + Ratti & Rampini 1977;
Ratti 2004
death plants + Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul
1989
stems + Binda & Joly 1991
wood + Poggi et al. 1994
51 Castanea sativa Mill. (= vesca Gaertn) Fagaceae psw + Beeson 1941
52 Castanopsis argyrophylla King ex Hook.f. psw + Beeson 1941
53 Quercus sp. psw + Beeson 1941
54 Quercus lamellosa Sm. psw + Beeson 1941
55 Calophyllum elatum Bedd. Guttiferae sw + Mathew 1982
t&f + Mathew 1987
56 Gmelina arborea Roxb. Lamiaceae psw + Beeson 1941
57 Tectona grandis L.f. psw + Beeson 1941
dry branches of standing + Kalshoven 1963
trees
poles + Kalshoven 1963
young tree stuck by lighting + Kalshoven 1963
sw + Mathew 1982
furniture + Geis 2002
logs and cut wood + Peres Filho et al. 2006
hp + Brasil 2008
small wooden planks + Quiroz-Gamboa & Sepúlveda-
Cano 2008
sapwood of logs + Mehl Lunz et al. 2010
58 Persea americana Mill. Lauraceae hp + Zimmerman 1941; Plantwise
2016
wood + Poggi et al. 1994
59 Leguminosae spp. Leguminosae sw of logs + Jha & Sen Sarma 2008
60 Adenanthera pavonina L. debarked trunk + Kalshoven 1963
61 Acacia spp. wood + + Lesne 1906 [su]; Stebbing 1914
[sa]; Vrydagh 1957 [su]; Poggi
et al. 1994 [su]
hp + FAO 2007
62 Acacia auriculiformis Benth. wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937
hp + Hutacharern 1987; Dell et al.
2012
small stems and branckes + Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul
1989
63 Acacia catechu (L.f.) Willd. branch + Stebbing 1914
trees felled + Stebbing 1914
psw + Beeson 1941
64 Acacia gageana Craib. psw + Beeson 1941
65 Acacia koa A.Gray wood + Fullaway 1961
66 Acacia koaia Hillebr. branches + Vrydagh 1957
hp + Plantwise 2016
67 Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. lct + Kalshoven 1963
68 Acacia mangium Willd. wood; branches; twigs + Beeson & Bhatia 1937
branches and twigs Nair 2001
hp + Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul
1989; FAO 2007
on branches + Nair 2007
69 Acacia modesta Wall. hp + Stebbing 1914
psw + Beeson 1941
sw + Chaudhry 1962, 1965
stems + Nair 2007
70 Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile psw + Beeson 1941
(= arabica (Lam.) Willd.)
stem boring + Nair 2007
71 Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937
felled timber + Singh & Bhandari 1987;
Orwa et al. 2009
timber a few weeks + cf. Elrasoul 1991
after felling
timber + Stanaway et al. 2001
72 Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Arn. psw + Beeson 1941
73 Albizia amara (Roxb.) Steud. (= cimara [sic!]) wood + + Stebbing 1914 [su]; Beeson & Bhatia 1937 [sa, su]; Poggi et al.
1994 [su]
psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Beeson 1941; Vrydagh 1957;
Plantwise 2016
74 Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. psw + Beeson 1941
(= stipulata (DC.) Boivin)
75 Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. branches + Paoli 1934
hp + Beeson 1941
psw + Beeson 1941
branches + Vrydagh 1957
wood + Poggi et al. 1994
through the bark in to + Bajpai 2007
the inner sw
76 Albizia lebbekoides (DC.) Benth. hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
77 Albizia odoratissima (L.f.) Benth. psw + Beeson 1941
sw + Mathew 1982
ti + Mathew 1982; Nair 2007
t&f + Mathew 1987
78 Albiziaprocera (Roxb.) Benth. psw + Beeson 1941
twigs of living trees + cf. Kalshoven 1963
79 Albizia saman (Jacq.) Merr. » hp + Spilman 1959; Binda & Joly
(= Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.) 1991
cut sampling + Beaver et al. 2011
80 Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. psw + Beeson 1941
(= frondosa Roxb.)
81 Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston psw + Beeson 1941
(= sepiaria Roxb.)
82 Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. hp + Zimmerman 1941; Binda & Joly
1991; Maes 1995; Plantwise 2016
83 Cassia sp. wood + + Vrydagh 1954 [sa]; Poggi et al.
1994 [su]
branches and death + Vrydagh 1957
branches
84 Cassia fistula L. psw + Beeson 1941
sw + Mathew 1982
85 Ceratonia siliqua L. hp + Plantwise 2016
86 Dalbergia spp. lct + Kalshoven 1963
hp + Baker & Berry 1978; Khan
1995; FAO 2007
87 Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
88 Dalbergia lanceolaria L.f. round logs + Mathew 1982
light packing cases + Mathew 1982
temporary construction + Mathew 1982
works
89 Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. death trees, under the + Lesne 1897
bark into the wood not
completly dry
death wood + Stebbing 1902; Lesne 1906
death wood not quite dry + Stebbing 1914
hp + Stebbing 1914
psw + Beeson 1941
twigs of living trees + cf. Kalshoven 1963
sw in round logs + Mathew 1982
sw in finished products + Mathew 1982
t&f + Mathew 1987
ti + Nair 2007
90 Dalbergia sissoo DC. death wood + Stebbing 1902; Lesne 1906
hp + Stebbing 1914; Sharma 1992,
1993; Hutacharern & Tubtim
1995
psw + Beeson 1941
sw + Chaudhry 1962, 1965
twigs of living trees + Kalshoven 1963
bark and stems of + cf. Lenne & Karki 1994
unhealthy or dying trees
timber + Stebbing 1914; Stanaway et al.
2001
91 Delonix spp. hp + Maes 2005; FAO 2007
92 Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. logs + Argaman 1987
fallen trunk + Binda & Joly 1991
dry branches + Joly et al. 1994
timber + Stanaway et al. 2001
hp + Brasil 2008; Plantwise 2016
93 Derris sp. roots + + Tanaka 1941 [sa]; Downes & Williams 1950 [sa]; Fisher 1950
[sa, su];Vrydagh 1954 [sa];
Breny 1957 [sa, su]; Vrydagh
1957 [su]; cf. Kalshoven 1963
[su]; Aitken 1975 [sa]
wood + Poggi et al. 1994
94 Derris elliptica (Wall.) Benth. roots + Corbett 1926; Miller 1934;
Fisher 1950
psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Plantwise 2016
95 Derris scandens (Roxb.) Benth. hp + Plantwise 2016
96 Desmodium oojeinense (Roxb.) H. Ohashi psw + Beeson 1941
(= Ougeinia dalbergioides Benth.)
97 Erythrina variegata L. (= indica Lam.) outer sw + + Mathew 1982
t&f + Mathew 1987
ti + Nair 2007
hp + Plantwise 2016
98 Falcataria moluccana (Miq.) Barneby & J.W.Grimes (= Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg) ti (psw) + Mathew 1982
Fosberg)
t&f + Mathew 1987
99 Indigofera tinctoria L. psw + Beeson 1941
100 Koompassia malaccensis Maingay ex Benth. hp + Bhot & Lila 1978; Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995; FAO 2007
101 Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet grains + Cotes 1889
(= Dolichos lablab L.)
hp + cf. Gumovsky 2010
102 Leucaena spp. hp + FAO 2007
103 Leucaena diversifolia (Schltdl.) Benth. wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937;
cf. Gumovsky 2010
hp + Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul
1989; cf. Gumovsky 2010
104 Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937
hp + Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul
1989; cf. Gumovsky 2010
wooden logs + Deepthi & Remadevi 2012
105 Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit x L. hp + Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul
diversifolia (Schltdl.) Benth. 1989
106 Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc grains + Cotes 1889; cf. Delobel & Tran,
(= Dolichos biflorus L. sensu auct. = D. 1993
uniflorus Lam.)
wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937
107 Millettia brandisiana Kurz. psw + Beeson 1941
108 Mimosoideae gen. sp. hwpm + !
109 Myroxylon sp. hp + Maes 1995
110 Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms cut branches; trunk + Binda & Joly 1991
hp + Brasil 2008; Plantwise 2016
111 Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) K. Heyne timber + Le-Van-Nong 1975
(Benth) (=ferrugineum (Decne.) Benth.)
112 Piptadenia flava (Spreng ex DC.) Benth. hp + Binda & Joly 1991; Maes 1995
113 Pithecellobium sp. wood + Balasubramanya et al. 1991
hp + Maes 1995
114 Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre psw + Beeson 1941
(= glabra Vent.)
hp + Veenakumari & Prashanth 2009
115 Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce hp + Stebbing 1914
(= spicigera L.)
psw + Beeson 1941
116 Prosopisjuliflora (Sw) DC. branches of a fallen tree + Swezey 1920
(= uniflora [sic!])
psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Zimmerman 1941
wood + Binda & Joly 1991
117 Prosopis pallida (Willd.) Kunth dead stems + Starr et al. 2004
living trunks and dry trunks + Juárez 2014
118 Pterocarpus indicus Willd. psw + Beeson 1941
119 Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
120 Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. wood + Stebbing 1914
psw + Beeson 1941
121 Senna multijuga (Rich.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (= Cassia multijuga Rich.) twigs of living trees + cf. Kalshoven 1963
122 Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (= Cassia florida Vahl = C. branches, a little under the bark + Chiaromonte 1933
siamea Lam.)
psw + Beeson 1941
123 Senna timoriensis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby (= Cassia timoriensis DC.) twigs of living trees + cf. Kalshoven 1963
124 Tephrosia candida (Roxb.) DC. hp + Plantwise 2016
125 Xylia spp. hp + FAO 2007
126 Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub. death trees, under the + Lesne 1897
(= X. dolabrifornis Benth.) bark into the wood not
completly dry
death wood + Stebbing 1902
death wood not quite dry + Stebbing 1914
hp + Stebbing 1914
psw + Beeson 194
127 Loranthus spp. Loranthaceae Feeding in stems + Mushtaque & Baloch 1979
128 Lagerstroemia lanceolata Wall. Lythraceae psw + Beeson 1941
129 Lagerstroemia microcarpa Wight sw + + Mathew 1982
t&f + Mathew 1987
ti + Nari 2007
hp + Plantwise 2016
130 Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb. sw + Mathew 1982
t&f + Mathew 1987
ti + Nair 2007
131 Bombax ceiba L. (= malabaricum DC.) Malvaceae psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Beeson 1941; Plantwise 2016
ti + Mathew 1982
132 Bombax insigne Wall. psw + Beeson 1941
133 Ceiba sp. hp + Zimmerman 1941
134 Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. sw of stored logs + Mathew 1982
135 Durio zibethinus L. (= zibethinus Murray) baited traps + + Sittichaya et al. 2013
136 probably Erinocarpus nimmonii J.Graham wood + Cotes 1889
(= nimmoanus Mast.)
137 Gossypium sp. hp + Maes 1995; Plantwise 2016
138 Gossypium hirsutum L. hp + Zimmerman 1941; Binda & Joly
1991
stored stalks + Balasubramanya et al. 1991
139 Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937; Poggi
(= tiliifolia [sic!] Vahl) et al. 1994
psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Beeson 1941; Vrydagh 1957;
Plantwise 2016
sw + Mathew 1982
140 Hibiscus sp. lct + Kalshoven 1963
141 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. hp + Zimmerman 1941
142 Schoutenia sp. (= Actinophora sp.) lct + Kalshoven 1963
143 Sterculia villosa Roxb. psw + Beeson 1941
(= ornata Wall. ex Kurz)
144 Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae psw + Beeson 1941
145 Swietenia sp. lct + Kalshoven 1963
146 Swietenia macrophylla King hp Brasil 2008
(= Switenia [sic!] macrophyla [sic!])
147 Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. hp + Binda & Joly 1991
(= mahogani DC)
148 Toona sp. lct + Kalshoven 1963
149 Toona ciliata M.Roem. psw + Beeson 1941
(= Cedrela toona Roxb. ex Rottler)
150 Artocarpus hirsutus Lamk. Moraceae psw + Mathew 1982
heartwood of timber used + Mathew 1982
as door frames
151 Ficus sp. hwpm + !
152 Ficus altissima Blume hp + Beeson 1941; Plantwise 2016
153 Ficus carica L. twigs and branches + Knopf 1971
154 Ficus racemosa L. (= glomerata Roxb.) psw + Beeson 1941
155 Ficus religiosa L. psw + Beeson 1941
156 Morus indica L. psw + Beeson 1941
157 Knema globularia (Lam.) Warb. Myristicaceae timber + Le-Van-Nong 1975
(= corticosa Lour.)
158 Corymbia calophylla (R.Br. ex Lindl.) Myrtaceae hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson
159 Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (= Eucalyptus citriodora psw + Beeson 1941
Hook.)
hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
160 Corymbia maculata (Hook.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
161 Corymbia torelliana (F.Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson (= Eucalyptus torelliana bark + Mathew 1982
F.Muell.)
162 Eucalyptus sp. hp + Lesne 1906; Moutia 1944
wood + Poggi et al. 1994
163 Eucalyptus amygdalina Labill. sw; heartwood + Kliejunas et al. 2003
164 Eucalyptus cloeziana F.Muell. hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
165 Eucalyptus delegatensis F.Muell. ex hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
R.T.Baker
166 Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
167 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
168 Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill sw + Mathew 1982
169 Eucalyptus nitens (H.Deane & Maiden) hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
Maiden
170 Eucalyptus obliqua L’Hér. hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
171 Eucalyptus ovata Labill. hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
172 Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell. hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
173 Eucalyptus saligna Sm. hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
174 Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. hp + Kliejunas et al. 2003
175 Psidium guajava L. branches + Fisher 1950; Camacho et al.
2002
hp; stems; wood + Binda & Joly 1991
176 Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels psw + Beeson 1941
(= Eugenia jambolana Lam.)
177 Chionanthus sp. Oleaceae hwpm + !
178 Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle Phyllanthaceae psw + Beeson 1941
(= microcarpa Blume)
179 Pinus sp. Pinaceae bark and wood + EPPO 2003
180 Bambusoideae spp. Poaceae basket-reeds + Cotes 1889
Bambusoideae
stems + Cotes 1889; cf. Lesne 1906;
Stebbing 1914; Beeson & Bhatia
1937
hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
drying bamboos + Panda 2011
181 Bambusa spp. hp + CABI/EPPO 2009; EPPO
2016b
hp + Planttwise 2016
182 Dendrocalamus strictus ? (Roxb.) Nees stems + Stebbing 1914
183 Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Hutacharern & Tubtim 1995
184 Jacquinia arborea Vahl (= barbasco Mez) Primulaceae stems + Fisher 1950; Aitken 1975
185 Grevillea robusta A.Cunn. ex R.Br. Proteaceae psw + Beeson 1941
186 Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Rhamnaceae psw + Beeson 1941
187 Zizyphus rugosa Lam. psw + Beeson 1941
188 Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. psw + Beeson 1941
189 Coffea sp. Rubiaceae hp? + Richardson 1979; Keall 1981
190 Haldina cordifolia (Roxb.) Ridsdale wood + + Beeson & Bhatia 1937
(= Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Bent. Hook. f.)
psw + Beeson 1941
hp + Beeson 1941; Vrydagh 1957;
Plantwise 2016
round logs and converted + Mathew 1982
timber
wood + Poggi et al. 1994
191 Citrus sp. Rutaceae hp + Maes 1995
192 Litchi chinensis Sonn. Sapindaceae wood + Lu et al. 2012
193 Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Theaceae stems and roots + Banerjee 1983
194 Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch. Ulmaceae wood + Beeson & Bhatia 1937; Poggi
et al. 1994
hp + Beeson 1941; Vrydagh 1957;
Plantwise 2016
195 Vitis vinifera L. Vitaceae stems + + Singh &fSrivastava 1998 [sa];
Binda & Joly 1991 [su]; Mani et
al. 2014 [sa]
196 Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton Zingiberaceae capsules + Cotes 1889; Lesne 1906
grains + Delobel & Tran 1993
Total 30 Sa/24 Su 158 68
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